The adolescent’s cognitive development has moved from knowledge through physical action to symbolic pre-logical intuitive thought, to formal logical patterns of reasoning about abstract ideas and problems. The cognitive structures are sufficiently stable to assimilate a variety of situations. Piaget states, that by the end of

adolescence the individual’s way of thinking is almost fully formed. The structures themselves undergo little change after adolescence. The adolescent thinks beyond the present forming theories about everything. Their acts of thought are completed on situations and information that has not or may never occur. The adolescent can transcend the here and now and deal with abstract concepts and verbal propositions. He can conceive of himself as wholly separate from family, friends and institutions. The adolescent can now plan his own life and assume responsibility for his own fate and systems of belief. In the formal stage theoretical prepositional, hypothetical and combinational reasoning patterns are characteristic. The youth can reason with alternate hypotheses, thinking over the possible and probable as well as the abstract and concrete. Theoretical reasoning enables the youth to interact more effectively in the environment. His understanding of time and space increases, he thinks of distant places, larger units of space and longer periods of time. He can conceive of both present and future problems. The cognitive changes in the symbolic process enables adolescents to exert their influences in humor, irony and jokes. He can understand metaphors and double meanings. The youth has the capacity to combine all variables and find a solution to the problem. He has developed the ability to use symbol for symbols, to reason inductively and deductively and to provide generalizations from sorted facts. In the process of exploring his new intellectual abilities, the adolescent sometimes loses touch with reality. He develops many idealistic schemas and feels that he can accomplish them all. The adolescent’s moral development is tempered by his new cognitive abilities, he now internalizes social values rather than simply imitating them. Not every adolescent is a formal operator, but every normal adolescent displays some signs of formal operations in science, moral judgment and literary understanding.

Theories of Jean Piaget


Note: These photographs are not personal work. They are part of an assignment that Supermass Studio order to me to cover “swing tones”. “swing tones” it’s an installation proposal 2013 competition which BEAM Summer Camp propose. Supermass Studio, in collaboration with Sage and Coombe Architects, wins this year’s BEAM competition to build a “swinging” interactive audible and visual installation of 18 distinctive swings and 36 variations of chimes in the woods of New Hampshire with 88 kids from the BEAM Camp.